HOW TO PREVENT THE MOST COMMON CAUSES OF BROKEN FORKS

Q: I broke the fork on my road bike and am not sure what to do. Do I need a new bike, or is it worth hunting for a replacement? The manufacturer has informed me that it is not covered by warranty. It seems that years of modifications, adjustments and general lack of maintenance finally caught up to me, and I didn’t have my bike as dialed as I thought. 

A: Breaking a fork or steerer is pretty much a nightmare scenario and rarely results in anything other than a trip to the ER. With that said, we do hear about it more often than anyone would like. In just the last two months I know of three local riders who’ve had broken steerer tubes. This is a too-close-to-home realization, and some recent recalls I’ve seen had me wondering if they were due to a wider manufacturing issue (two of the bikes were Specialized Tarmacs), customer neglect or just coincidence. My research and investigation have led me to believe that it might be a little bit of everything.

To answer your question, yes, it is worth finding a new fork since it sounds like nothing else on your bike was damaged. If you had crashed or maybe taken the bike off the roof in a drive-thru, you should also look closely at the frame to check for cracks. There are a handful of companies offering forks for both quick-release and thru-axle applications. Brands like Whiskey ($425), Enve ($625) and Ritchey (starting at $220) are among the more popular.

The main details you need to verify are the steerer size and whether it has a taper, the length (crown to axle), the rake/offset, and the brake and axle type. With all of that, you should be able to find plenty of options to get your bike back up and running safely, but a local shop can also be very helpful in a case like this.

The Root Cause

Outside of a direct impact, the number-one cause for steerer tubes breaking is neglect. Most fork failures are simply a case of the headset being too loose for too long. When a headset is loose, the headset components move on the steerer, and over time mar the surface in a fairly uniform fashion.

To compare, think of a pipe cutter that you rotate around the pipe to cut it rather than a blade. This could take years or as little as hours depending on the construction of the fork. I would also point out that a headset that is too tight can also cause this, but is less likely because normally this will also impair the bearing.

This brings me to manufacturing issues. As brands and engineers look to optimize weight and performance with forks specifically, the steerers and crown area are refined, leaving very little extra material. On top of that, the design of a carbon fork is fairly complex since carbon doesn’t like tight bends and is strongest in continuous fibers. If a carbon fork is sanded, ground or bonded, it can greatly reduce its structural integrity. Adding things like internal routing only makes the system more complex. 

The Solution

It’s actually quite simple. Understand and inspect your equipment. If you’re unsure of your own skills, find a trusted shop or mechanic and make sure that someone that truly understands your specific bike is taking the time to inspect it regularly. Things like internal routing can make it harder to tell when your headset is too loose or tight, so a fresh pair of eyes is always good.

When making changes or upgrades to your cockpit, make sure your stem doesn’t mark or damage the steerer and that you have the proper amount of headset spacers. Using a quality compression plug is also important. Ensure that it is seated all the way, and remember that they work best when at least 50 percent or more of the stem clamps around it, meaning don’t have too much steerer exposed above the stem.

The most important thing that I can’t stress enough is to use the correct tools. The most important is a torque wrench for tightening everything down, especially with anything that is carbon or alloy on carbon. I know this will get a lot of heat, but if your trusted mechanic says they don’t need a torque wrench, then I’m not sure I would trust them.

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